Purpose: Paliperidone palmitate is an antipsychotic medication available as long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age and gender on paliperidone exposure after administration of LAI formulations.
Methods: Data on serum concentrations of paliperidone from patients using LAI during were included retrospectively from a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service. Information about dose was obtained from the requisition forms. As a measure of exposure, daily dose-adjusted serum concentration (C/D ratio) was used. Based on initial analysis of C/D ratios versus age, a breaking point close to 50 years was observed, thus deciding the grouping of patients as older (≥50 years) or younger (15-49 years). Linear mixed model analyses, allowing multiple measurements per patients, were used.
Results: In total, 1223 patients were included, whereof 1158 patients used paliperidone LAI in once-monthly intervals. In these patients (27.9% older), older patients had significantly higher paliperidone C/D ratio than younger patients (+20%, p<0.001). Compared to males, females had higher C/D ratio (+14%; p<0.001). Subsequently, older female users of once-monthly LAI intervals had 41% higher paliperidone C/D ratios compared to younger males (15.0 vs. 21.2 nM/mg; p<0.001). Compared to females aged 21-30 years, females with high age (≥70 years) had at least 105% higher paliperidone C/D ratio (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The present study shows that older age and female gender are associated with higher paliperidone exposure than younger age and males, respectively. Particularly, older female patients (>50 years) are likely exposed to high concentration and cautious dosing in this subgroup is required.