Forskningsartikler – Aldring og helse

Quality of Life Research, 2020

Obtaining EQ-5D-5L utilities from the disease specific quality of life Alzheimer’s disease scale: development and results from a mapping study

Abstract

Purpose The Quality of Life Alzheimer’s Disease Scale (QoL-AD) is commonly used to assess disease specific health-related
quality of life (HRQoL) as rated by patients and their carers. For cost-effectiveness analyses, utilities based on the EQ-5D are often required. We report a new mapping algorithm to obtain EQ-5D indices when only QoL-AD data are available.
Methods Different statistical models to estimate utility directly, or responses to individual EQ-5D questions (response mapping) from QoL-AD, were trialled for patient-rated and proxy-rated questionnaires. Model performance was assessed by root mean square error and mean absolute error.
Results The response model using multinomial regressionincluding age and sex, performed best in both the estimation dataset and an independent dataset.
Conclusions The recommended mapping algorithm allows researchers for the first time to estimate EQ-5D values from QoLAD data, enabling cost-utility analyses using datasets where the QoL-AD but no utility measures were collected.

Forfattere

Ines Rombach, Marvi Iftikhar, Gurleen S. Jhuti, Anders Gustavsson, Pascal Lecomte, Mark Belger, Ron Handels, Amparo Y. Castro Sanchez, Jan Kors, Louise Hopper, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Geir Selbæk, Astrid Stephan, Sietske A. M. Sikkes, Bob Woods, Manuel Gonçalves‑Pereira, Orazio Zanetti, Inez H. G. B. Ramakers, Frans R. J. Verhey, John Gallacher, Actifcare Consortium, LeARN Consortium, Filipa Landeiro on behalf of ROADMAP Consortium, Alastair M. Gray.

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Aging and mental health, 2020

Development of best practice recommendations to enhance access to and use of formal community care services for people with dementia in Europe: a Delphi process conducted by the Actifcare project

Abstract

Objectives: Home-dwelling people with dementia and their informal carers experience barriers impeding access to community care services. This study is a part of the Actifcare project where eight countries participated. The aim was to achieve consensus on best practice recommendations for enhancing access to and use of formal community care services.

Method: A Delphi consensus process was conducted. A total of 48 professional experts, 14 people with dementia and 20 informal carers rated the importance of 72 statements on a 7-point Likert scale. Consensus was based on the median and level of dispersion.

Results: Sixty-two statements reached consensus, resulting in three categories of recommendations. An appointed contact person was central in Recommendations to enhance access. Coordination and flexibility in setting and type of services were among the Recommendations to enhance use. Training of health care personnel and person-centred care were central Recommendations that can facilitate access or use indirectly.

Conclusion: The Actifcare Best Practice Recommendations suggest practical measures that can be taken by decision makers to enhance access and use of community care services, and thereby enhance quality of care and quality of life for home dwelling people with dementia and their informal carers.

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Forfattere

Janne Røsvik , Mona Michelet , Knut Engedal , Sverre Bergh , Anja Bieber ,
Manuel Gonçalves-Pereira , Daniel Michael Portolani , Louise Hopper ,
Kate Irving , Hannah Jelley , Liselot Kerpershoek , Gabriele Meyer , Maria J.
Marques , Britt-Marie Sjølund , Anders Sköldunger , Astrid Stephan , Frans
Verhey , Marjolein de Vugt , Bob Woods , Claire Wolfs , Orazio Zanetti & Geir
Selbaek

Nature, Scientific Reports 2020

Cerebrospinal fluid sTREM2 in Alzheimer’s disease: comparisons between clinical presentation and AT classification

Abstract

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is an innate immune receptor expressed by microglia. Its cleaved fragments, soluble TREM2 (sTREM2), can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Previous studies indicate higher CSF sTREM2 in symptomatic AD; however most of these studies have included biomarker positive AD cases and biomarker negative controls. The aim of the study was to explore potential differences in the CSF level of sTREM2 and factors associated with an increased sTREM2 level in patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia due to AD compared with cognitively unimpaired controls as judged by clinical symptoms and biomarker category (AT). We included 299 memory clinic patients, 62 (20.7%) with AD-MCI and 237 (79.3%) with AD dementia, and 113 cognitively unimpaired controls. CSF measures of the core biomarkers were applied to determine AT status. CSF sTREM2 was analyzed by ELISA. Patients presented with comparable CSF sTREM2 levels as the cognitively unimpaired (9.6 ng/ml [SD 4.7] versus 8.8 ng/ml [SD 3.6], p = 0.27). We found that CSF sTREM2 associated with age-related neuroinflammation and tauopathy irrespectively of amyloid β, APOE ε4 status or gender. The findings were similar in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic individuals.

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Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2020

Blood Pressure in Different Dementia Disorders, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Subjective Cognitive Decline

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate whether blood pressure (BP) differed among people with different dementia diagnoses, mild cognitive impairment, and subjective cognitive decline and whether BP differences were observed across age and sex. Our study population comprised clinical data from 6,236 patients (53.5% women) aged 45– 97 years (Mean = 73.9, SD = 9.6) referred to dementia assessment in 42 outpatient clinics across Norway during 2009–2019. Patients with the following diagnoses were included: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD), Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Vascular dementia (VaD), mixed AD and VaD, and dementia in Parkinson’s disease/Lewy body disease (PDD/LBD). For all diagnostic groups, SBP increased with age until about 80 years, after which it trended downward, whereas DBP declined after 60 years of age for all diagnostic groups. Patients aged 65 years and younger with SCD had lower SBP compared to AD patients at the same age, but SBP increased rapidly with increasing age, resulting in a substantially higher SBP at 80 + years compared with all other diagnostic groups. No other differences in SBP or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were found among patients with the different dementia diagnosis. Neither SBP nor DBP differed between MCI and AD groups. An
interaction between age and gender was found for SBP at younger ages, as women started out with a lower pressure than men did but ended up with higher SBP. Conclusion: Among 80+ patients, blood pressure did not differ as a function of the various dementia disorders. The SBP for the SCD patients of various age groups differed from all other diagnostic groups, indicating either that internal regulation of BP in older people is a risk factor for dementia or that brain damage causing dementia or MCI may led to changes in blood pressure. Brain aging seems to influence SBP differently in men and women.

Forfattere

Knut Hestad, Knut Engedal, Peter Horndalsveen and Bjørn Heine Strand

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Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, 2020

How is Health Promotion Research Undertaken in a Nordic Context? A Scoping Review of Doctoral Dissertations from 2008–2018

Abstract

This scoping review was commenced as a collaboration within the Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN). The overall aim was to explore how research under the label ‘health promotion’ was undertaken in a Nordic context. The search for dissertations published in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was limited to the years 2008 to 2018. Manual searches of university websites, as well as different databases in the Nordic countries, were required for collecting dissertations from all universities. The collection of dissertations was more difficult than expected. There were 56 published PhD dissertations from 6 universities in Denmark, 51 from 8 universities in Finland, 0 from Iceland, 53 from 7 universities in Norway and 193 from 22 universities in Sweden. Almost half of the analysed dissertations combined qualitative and quantitative methods. About one-third of the dissertations had a settings approach, followed by a societal approach and individual approach. Finland and Sweden presented more intervention studies than the other countries. A majority of the intervention studies included individual lifestyle issues. Based on the analysis of the research approaches, more dissertations embracing societal perspectives and broader determinants of health may be recommended for future Nordic dissertations.

Forfattere

Andrea Eriksson, Heidi Myglegård Andersen, Charli Eriksson, Aud Johannessen, Nina Simonsen, Nicole Thualagant, Steffen Torp, Anne Trollvik, Bo J.A. Haglund

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Informal and formal care among persons with dementia immediately before nursing home admission

Abstract

Background: Dementia is a care intensive disease, especially in the later stages, implying in many cases a substantial carer burden. This study assesses the use of formal and informal care resources among persons with dementia during the last month before nursing home admission. It also describes main providers of informal care and assesses the extent of informal care rendered by the extended social network.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we collected data about persons with dementia that were newly admitted to a nursing home in Norway. Information about the amount of formal and informal care during the last 4 weeks preceding nursing home admission was collected from the primary caregivers. Clinical data were collected by examining the patients, while sociodemographic data was collected from the patients’ files.
Results: A total of 395 persons with dementia were included. The amount of informal care provided by the family caregiver was 141.9 h per month SD = 227.4. Co-resident patients received five times more informal care than non-co-residents. Informal care from the extended social network was provided to 212 patients (53.7%) with a mean of 5.6 (SD = 11.2) hours per month and represented 3.8% of the total informal care rendered to the patients. Formal care was provided to 52.7% of the patients with a mean of 18.0 (SD = 50.1) hours per month. Co-residency was significantly associated with more informal care, and the associations varied with respect to age, relation to the caregiver, and the caregiver’s working situation. Good/excellent general health was associated with less formal care.
Conclusion: Persons with dementia on the verge of admission to a nursing home are mainly supported by the family caregiver, and the use of informal care is particularly high among co-residents. In order to delay nursing home admission, future research should explore the unrealized care potential in extended social networks, as well as the potential for increasing the number of recipients of formal care services.

Forfattere

Arnt Egil Ydstebø , Jurate Šaltytė Benth, Sverre Bergh, Geir Selbæk and Corinna Vossius

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Nature Communications

The genetic architecture of human brainstem structures and their involvement in common brain disorders

Abstract

Brainstem regions support vital bodily functions, yet their genetic architectures and involvement in common brain disorders remain understudied. Here, using imaging-genetics data from a discovery sample of 27,034 individuals, we identify 45 brainstem-associated genetic loci, including the first linked to midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata volumes, and map them to 305 genes. In a replication sample of 7432 participants most of the loci show the same effect direction and are significant at a nominal threshold. We detect genetic overlap between brainstem volumes and eight psychiatric and neurological disorders. In additional clinical data from 5062 individuals with common brain disorders and 11,257 healthy controls, we observe differential volume alterations in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, multiple sclerosis, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Parkinson’s disease, supporting the relevance of brainstem regions and their genetic architectures in common brain disorders.

Forfattere

Torbjørn Elvsåshagen, […] Karin Persson, […] Geir Selbæk, [et al.],[…] Tobias Kaufmann

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BMJ Open

I need to be who I am: a qualitative interview study exploring the needs of people with dementia in Norway

Abstract

Objective Many people with dementia receive community services. These services are often based on the needs of informal caregivers and professional caregivers’ assessment. User involvement and participation are main objectives in the Norwegian National Dementia Plan 2020. To enhance user involvement and individual tailoring of healthcare services, more information is required about the needs of people with dementia. The aim of this study was to explore the experienced needs of people with dementia in order to facilitate user involvement in provided services.

Methods An explorative cross-sectional study design was used. We performed semistructured interviews with people with dementia who were recruited from all regions of Norway. The sample comprised 35 participants diagnosed with dementia. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed, and the data material was analysed using a qualitative content analysis.

Results Three main categories emerged from the interviews: (1) to stay connected; (2) to be active and participate; and (3) to live for the moment. The overarching theme was: the need to be who I am.

Conclusions People with dementia participating in the study were heterogeneous regarding wants and requirements. Most of them expressed the need and wish to hold on to who they are. Close and robust relations with family and friends can give significant support to people with dementia. However, living with dementia might put considerable strain on relations. Services should provide support to enhance relationships, encourage existing networks to remain stable and facilitate participation in meaningful activities for people living with dementia.

Forfattere

Elisabeth Wiken Telenius, Siren Eriksen, Anne Marie Mork Rokstad

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Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs

Elevated alcohol consumption among geriatric psychiatric in-patients

Abstract

Although a clear relationship has been established between elevated alcohol consumption and psychiatric problems in old age, there are few descriptions of the prevalence of elevated alcohol consumption in older adults who have been referred to geriatric psychiatric treatment.

To describe the prevalence of self-reported elevated alcohol consumption in men and women referred to geriatric psychiatry wards in Norway, and to explore factors associated with elevated alcohol consumption.

This cross-sectional study includes data from a registry of geriatric psychiatry patients aged ≥ 65 years from December 2016 until December 2018. The outcome measure was reported elevated alcohol consumption assessed with the short version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). The analyses used demographic data as well as a measure of cognitive function, psychiatric diagnosis and use of psychotropic drugs.

In total, 367 patients (131, 35.7% men) with a mean (SD) age of 74.7 (7.6) years were included. Of these patients, 27% scored above the pre-set cut-off for elevated alcohol consumption according to AUDIT-C (≥ 3 and 4 for women and men, respectively). The prevalence of elevated alcohol did not differ by gender. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, older age, living with someone and use of antidepressants were associated with reduced odds for reporting elevated alcohol consumption (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89–0.96; OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.31–0.97; and 0.54, 95% CI 0.32–0.92, respectively).

A relatively high proportion of psychiatric patients aged 65 years or older reported elevated alcohol consumption, regardless of diagnosis. Older age, living with someone and use of antidepressants were associated with lower odds for elevated alcohol consumption.

Forfattere

Anne-Sofie Helvik, Knut Engedal, Aud Johannessen

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International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being

Awareness of dementia and coping to preserve quality of life: a five-year longitudinal narrative study

Abstract

Purpose

To examine how people (<65 years) with young-onset dementia (YOD) express awareness of dementia and how they seem to handle awareness as a strategy to preserve quality of life over time.

Method

A longitudinal qualitative study with individuals with YOD was performed with interviews every 6 months over 5 years for a maximum of 10 interviews. The interviews were analysed by modified grounded theory adapted to narrative inquiry.

Results

Awareness is a complex, multidimensional concept. Awareness of dementia is predisposed by personality, life history and established coping styles. The main coping styles during dementia—live in the moment, ignore the dementia, and make the best of it—seem to be rather consistent throughout disease progression. Transitions in the life situation may change the individual’s awareness of dementia.

Conclusion

Unawareness of dementia may have an important adaptive function for preserving quality of life. Increasing awareness of dementia must be approached with reflexivity and great sensitivity.

Forfattere

Kirsten Thorsen, Marcia C.N. Dourado, Aud Johannessen