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European Journal of Ageing, 2022

Changes in socioeconomic diferentials in old age life expectancy in four Nordic countries: the impact of educational expansion and education‑specifc mortality

Abstract

Abstract

Overall progress in life expectancy (LE) depends increasingly on survival in older ages. The birth cohorts now reaching old age have experienced considerable educational expansion, which is a driving force for the social change and social inequality. Thus, this study examines changes in old age LE by educational attainment in the Nordic countries and aims to fnd out to what extent the change in national LEs is attributable to education-specifc mortality and the shifting educational composition. We used national register data comprising total 65+populations in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden to create period life tables stratifed by fve-year age groups (65–90+), sex and educational attainment. Diference in LE between 2001 and 2015 was decomposed into the contributions of mortality changes within each educational group and changes in educational composition. Increasing LE at all ages and in all educational groups coincided with persistent and growing educational inequalities in all countries. Most of the gains in LE at age 65 could be attributed to decreased mortality (63–90%), especially among those with low education, the largest educational group in most countries. The proportion of the increase in LE attributable to improved education was 10–37%, with the highest contributions recorded for women in Norway and Sweden. The rising educational levels in the Nordic countries still carry potential for further gains in national LEs. However, the educational expansion has contributed to uneven gains in LE between education groups, which poses a risk for the future increase of inequalities in LE.

Forfattere

Linda Enroth, Domantas Jasilionis, Laszlo Németh, Bjørn Heine Strand, Insani Tanjung, Louise Sundberg, Stefan Fors, Marja Jylhä, Henrik Brønnum‑Hansen

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International Journal of Epidemiology, 2022

Cohort Profile Update: The HUNT Study, Norway

Abstract

Key features

In the HUNT Study, all residents aged ≥20 years in the Nord-Trøndelag region, Norway, have been invited to repeated surveys since 1984-86. The study data may be linked to local and national health registries.

The HUNT4 survey in 2017-19 included 56 042 participants in Nord-Trøndelag and 107 711 participants in the neighbouring Sør-Trøndelag region.

The HUNT4 data enable more long-term follow-up, studies of life course health trajectories and within-family studies.

New measures include body composition analysis using bioelectrical impedance; a 1-week accelerometer recording; physical and cognitive testing in older adults; measurements of haemoglobin and blood cell counts, HbA1c and phosphatidylethanol; and genotyping.

Researchers can apply for HUNT data access from HUNT Research Centre if they have obtained project approval from the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics, see www.ntnu.edu/hunt/data

Forfattere

Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Arnulf Langhammer, Tommy Aune Rehn, Grete Kjelvik, Trond Viggo Grøntvedt, Elin Pettersen Sørgjerd, Jørn Søberg Fenstad, Jon Heggland, Oddgeir Holmen, Maria C Stuifbergen, Sigrid Anna Aalberg Vikjord, Ben M Brumpton, Håvard Kjesbu Skjellegrind, Pernille Thingstad, Erik R Sund, Geir Selbæk, Paul Jarle Mork, Vegar Rangul, Kristian Hveem, Marit Næss, Steinar Krokstad

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Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Open, 2022

The associations of psychological symptoms and cognitive patterns with pain and pain sensitization in people with hand osteoarthritis

Abstract

Objective
To examine whether psychological symptoms and cognitive patterns are associated with self-reported pain and pain sensitization in people with hand osteoarthritis (OA).
Design
In the Nor-Hand study (n ​= ​300), people with hand OA self-reported psychological symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), cognitive patterns (Pain catastrophizing Scale and Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale) as well as their pain severity in hands, overall pain and multi-joint pain. Central pain sensitization was measured clinically by temporal summation and pressure pain threshold tests. We examined whether psychological symptoms and cognitive patterns were cross-sectionally associated with pain using linear regression. Beta coefficients (β) per one standard deviation of the independent variable were presented. Stratified analyses were performed in cases of significant interactions (p ​< ​0.10).
Results
Higher levels of anxiety, depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing and low levels of self-efficacy were statistically significantly associated with higher levels of hand pain by Numeric Rating Scale (β ​= ​0.43, 0.48 and −0.57, respectively). Similar associations were found for overall pain, but not for measures of central pain sensitization. In stratified analyses, anxiety and depressive symptoms were more strongly related with pain in subgroups with younger age and higher comorbidity burden. Pain catastrophizing was more strongly related with pain in subgroups with younger age, overweight/obesity, higher comorbidity burden and poor sleep.
Conclusion
Psychological symptoms and cognitive patterns were associated with self-reported OA pain, especially in people with younger age, overweight/obesity, higher comorbidity burden and poor sleep. No associations were found for psychological symptoms and cognitive patterns with pain sensitization.

Forfattere

Elisabeth Mulrooney, Tuhina Neogi, Hanne Dagfinrud, Hilde Berner Hammer, Pernille Steen Pettersen, Torfinn L. Gaarden, Knut Engedal, Tore K. Kvien, Karin Magnusson & Ida K. Haugen

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Neuroimage, 2022

Deep neural networks learn general and clinically relevant representations of the ageing brain

Abstract

Abstract:

The discrepancy between chronological age and the apparent age of the brain based on neuroimaging data – the brain age delta – has emerged as a reliable marker of brain health. With an increasing wealth of data, approaches to tackle heterogeneity in data acquisition are vital. To this end, we compiled raw structural magnetic resonance images into one of the largest and most diverse datasets assembled (n=53542), and trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to predict age. We achieved state-of-the-art performance on unseen data from unknown scanners (n=2553), and showed that higher brain age delta is associated with diabetes, alcohol intake and smoking. Using transfer learning, the intermediate representations learned by our model complemented and partly outperformed brain age delta in predicting common brain disorders. Our work shows we can achieve generalizable and biologically plausible brain age predictions using CNNs trained on heterogeneous datasets, and transfer them to clinical use cases.

Forfattere

Leonardsen, E.H., Peng, H., Kaufmann, T. (…) Selbæk, G. (…) Wang, Y.

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BMC Oral Health, 2022

The validity of self-reported number of teeth and edentulousness among Norwegian older adults, the HUNT Study

Abstract

Background: Number of teeth is an established indicator of oral health and is commonly self-reported in epidemio‑logical studies due to the costly and labor-intensive nature of clinical examinations. Although previous studies have found self-reported number of teeth to be a reasonably accurate measure, its accuracy among older adults≥70 years is less explored. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported number of teeth and edentulousness in older adults and to investigate factors that may afect the accuracy of self-reports.

Methods: This study included two diferent samples of older adults≥70 years drawn from the fourth wave of the Trøndelag Health Study (the HUNT Study), Norway. Sample 1 (n=586) was used to evaluate the validity of selfreported number of teeth and sample 2 (n=518) was used to evaluate self-reported edentulousness. Information on number of teeth and background variables (education, smoking, cognitive function, and self-perceived general and oral health) were self-reported in questionnaires, while clinical oral health examinations assessed number of teeth, number of teeth restored or replaced by fxed prosthodontics and edentulousness. Spearman and Pearson correlation coefcients, Bland–Altman plot, chi-square test and kappa statistics were used to assess the agreement between selfreported and clinically recorded number of teeth.

Results: The mean diference between self-reported and clinically recorded number of teeth was low (−0.22 teeth), and more than 70% of the participants reported their number of teeth within an error of two teeth. Correlations between self-reports and clinical examinations were high for the total sample (0.86 (Spearman) and 0.91 (Pearson)). However, a lower correlation was found among participants with dementia (0.74 (Spearman) and 0.85 (Pearson)), par‑ticipants having≥20 teeth (0.76 (Spearman) and 0.67 (Pearson)), and participants with≥5 teeth restored or replaced by fxed prosthodontics (0.75 (Spearman) and 0.77 (Pearson)). Self-reports of having teeth or being edentulous were correct in 96.3% of the cases (kappa value 0.93, p value<0.001).

Conclusions: Among older Norwegian adults, self-reported number of teeth agreed closely with clinical tooth counts and nearly all the edentulous participants correctly reported having no teeth.

Forfattere

Hedda Høvik, Marit Kolberg, Linda Gjøra, Line Cathrine Nymoen, Rasa Skudutyte-Rysstad, Lene Hystad Hove, Yi-Qian Sun & Tone Natland Fagerhaug

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Clinical Interventions in Aging, 2022

Digital Assistive Technology to Support Everyday Living in Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this review was to explore whether knowledge about and practice of technology for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia (D) had developed since our 2017 review. Furthermore, we wanted to explore the usability and acceptability of technology in the newer trials, and how these may impact quality of life, occupational performance and human dignity.

Materials and Methods: We searched for primary studies published between 2017 and 2020 reusing medical subject heading (MeSH) terms in five databases – Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, Amed and Cinahl – and obtained 1452 titles. The titles were divided in six piles, two for each of the three authors. The titles were sorted utilizing the Rayyan web tool. Fourteen studies were included in this review. The Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to assess the quality of the studies examined.

Results: This review included almost twice as many participants as in the 2007–2017 review. Since 2017, a shift seems to have occurred toward technologies that can be worn on the body to monitor body functions and report states, or imbalances. Moreover, research interest is now focused on mobile phone apps and wearables providing reminders and timely support, rather than on separate devices at home.

Conclusion: The studies conducted since 2017 report on wearable and environmental digital assistive technologies and often with multiple purposes. Three strategies for support seem evident: prompting and reminding people with dementia, monitoring people with dementia at home using environmental sensors and biosensors and providing safety outdoors. Thus, there is still a need for further research on the impact of technologies promoting occupational performance, quality of life, and human dignity for independent living.

Forfattere

Torhild Holthe, Liv Halvorsrud, Anne Lund

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BMC Geriatrics, 2022

The short-term effect of a modified comprehensive geriatric assessment and regularly case conferencing on neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing homes: a cluster randomized trial

Abstract

Aims: To investigate the short-term effect of implementing a modified comprehensive geriatric assessment and regularly case conferencing in nursing homes on neuropsychiatric symptoms.

Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and may persist over time in nursing home residents. Evidence of effective interventions is scarce.

Design: A parallel cluster-randomised controlled trial.

Methods: The intervention was monthly standardised case conferencing in combination with a modified comprehensive geriatric assessment. The control group received care as usual.

Main outcome measure: The total score on the short version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-Q, 12-items).

Results: A total of 309 residents at 34 long-term care wards in 17 nursing homes (unit of randomisation) were included. The intervention care units conducted on average two case conference-meetings (range 1-3), discussing a mean of 4.8 (range 1-8) residents. After 3 months, there were no difference of NPI-Q total score between the intervention (-0.4) and the control group (0.5) (estimated mean difference = -1.0, 95% CI -2.4 to 0.5, p = 0.19). There was a difference in favour of the intervention group on one of the secondary outcome measures, the apathy symptoms (-0.5 95% CI: -0.9 to -0.1, p = 0.03).

Conclusion: In this study there were no short-term effect of case conferencing and modified comprehensive geriatric assessments after three months on the total score on neuropsychiatric symptoms. The intervention group had less apathy at 3 months follow-up compared to those receiving care as usual. The findings suggest that a more comprehensive intervention is needed to improve the total Neuropsychiatric symptoms burden and complex symptoms.

Forfattere

Geir-Tore Stensvik, Anne-Sofie Helvik, Gørill Haugan, Aslak Steinsbekk, Øyvind Salvesen & Sigrid Nakrem

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Dementia, 2022

The experience of lived body as expressed by people with dementia: A systematic meta-synthesis

Abstract

Introduction: People with dementia undergo extensive bodily changes during the course of dementia. Even though this is largely unrecognised in the literature, these changes greatly impact on the persons’ experiences of living with dementia. Consequently, health care professionals and family caregivers need to be aware of the implications this has for delivering care to people with dementia. Hence, a systematic review that synthesises the knowledge on this topic is called for.

Method: This article presents a qualitative systematic meta-synthesis of interview studies with people with dementia. The theoretical framework of lifeworlds by van Manen provided the context for the study. The Critical Appraisal Skills Program criteria for qualitative studies were used to appraise the studies. Thirty-nine qualitative research studies were included in the review. The analysis followed the principles of interpretive synthesis.

Findings: When exploring people’s experiences of their body when living with dementia, four categories emerge: (1) My body works; (2) My body betrays me; (3) Understanding and adapting to my body’s changes; and (4) My body in relation to others.

Discussion/Conclusion: Every individual has their own personal experience of living with dementia; however, if health professionals fail to regard the body as more than an object, this may lead to the person’s alienation both from the relation and from the body. The lived body experience has relational aspects as people with dementia are aware that others observe them, and they also observe others. Others’ behaviour may affect the person’s experience of body; one can perceive oneself as approved or denounced. People with dementia describe that a body that is capable and strong gives access to the world and to participation.

Forfattere

Siren Eriksen, Ellen K. Grov, Tanja L. Ibsen, Anne M. Mork Rokstad, Elisabeth W. Telenius

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BMC Geriatrics , 2022

Mortality in nursing home residents stratified according to subtype of dementia: a longitudinal study over three years

Abstract

Background: There are several subtypes of dementia caused by different pathophysiology and with different clinical characteristics. Irrespective subtype, the disease is progressive, eventually leading to the need for care and supervision on a 24/7 basis, often provided in nursing homes (NH). The progression rate and course of the disease might vary according to subtype. The aim of this study was to explore whether the mortality rate for NH residents varied according to the subtype of dementia.

Methods: NH residents were followed from admission to NH over a period of 36 months or until death with annual follow-up examinations. Demographic and clinical data were collected. The diagnosis of dementia and its subtype at baseline (BL) were set according to international accepted criteria. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to estimate median survival time. A Cox regression model was estimated to assess the impact of dementia diagnosis and demographic and clinical variables on mortality.

Results: A total of 1349 participants were included. When compared to persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), persons with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and dementia with Lewy bodies or Parkinson’s disease dementia (DLB/PDD) were younger and had more neuropsychiatric symptoms. Median survival for the total sample was 2.3 years (95% confidence interval: 2.2–2.5). When compared to persons with AD, having no dementia or unspecified dementia was associated with higher mortality, while we found similar mortality in other subtypes of dementia. Higher age, male gender, poorer general health, higher dependency in activities of daily living, and more affective symptoms were associated with higher mortality.

Conclusion: Mortality did not differ across the subtypes of dementia, except in persons with unspecified dementia or without dementia, where we found a higher mortality. With a median survival of 2.3 years, NH residents are in the last stage of their lives and care and medical follow-up should focus on a palliative approach. However, identifying the subtype of dementia might help carers to better understand and address neuropsychiatric symptoms and to customize medical treatment.

Forfattere

Corinna Vossius, Sverre Bergh, Geir Selbæk, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Janne Myhre, Eivind Aakhus & Bjørn Lichtwarck

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