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Marine drugs, 2021

Limited Benefit of Marine Protein Hydrolysate on Physical Function and Strength in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Abstract

Age-related muscle wasting can compromise functional abilities of the elderly. Protein intake stimulates muscle protein synthesis; however, ageing muscle is more resistant to stimuli. This double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial is one of the first registered studies to evaluate the effects of a supplement of marine protein hydrolysate (MPH) on measures of physical function and strength. Eighty-six older adults received nutritional supplements containing 3 g of MPH or a placebo for up to 12 months. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), grip strength and gait speed were measured, and dietary intake was registered at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. No difference was found between the intervention and control groups in mean change in SPPB (independent sample t-test, p = 0.41) or regarding time trend in SPPB, grip strength, or gait speed (linear mixed model). The participants in our study were well functioning, causing a ceiling effect in SPPB. Further, they had sufficient protein intake and were physically active. Differences in physical function between those completing the intervention and the dropouts might also have created bias in the results. We recommend that future studies of MPH be carried out on a more frail or malnourished population.

Forfattere

Linda Kornstad Nygård, Ingunn Mundal , Lisbeth Dahl, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Anne Marie Mork Rokstad

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Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, 2021

Metaphors for the Meaning of Caring for a Spouse with Dementia

Abstract

Background: Spouses of people with young-onset frontotemporal dementia (YO-FTD) (age 65 years or younger) encounter special challenges. The diagnosis is scarcely known; the early onset is unexpected; and the disease is characterized by symptoms varying from those of other types of dementia. Caring implies increasing hardships, which can be difficult to communicate to others when applying for support. Metaphors create and communicate meaning and are increasingly used in health care and health interventions as ways to better understand the situation.
Aim: To examine the experiences of spouses of people with YO-FTD and their needs for care and support as expressed through metaphors in narratives of their experiences during the development of the dementia.
Methods: Qualitative interviews with 16 informants (ten women, six men) were conducted in 2014/2015. They were recruited from seven memory clinics, one municipality dementia team, and a nursing home. Steger’s three-step method for analyzing metaphors was applied.
Findings: The core metaphors cover experiences of the dementia and the transformation of the spouse, changed roles and relationships between spouses, the transformation of the self, a radical turn of existential life, and relationships with others. Metaphors are words and phrases used to talk about complicated, contradictory, shameful, and/or normatively difficult feelings and reactions as caring spouses. The open themes and, at the same time, provide verbal shields and defences. Metaphors are especially effective for expressing the strength of the reactions in caring as emotional work and are tools for mastering emotions and challenges in life.
Conclusion: Metaphors give insights into the significant experiences of spouses of partners with YO-FTD and offer personnel in health services a better understanding of their needs for tailored support and help.

Forfattere

Kirsten Thorsen og Aud Johannessen

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Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 2021.

Current and Future Prevalence Estimates of Mild Cognitive Impairment, Dementia, and Its Subtypes in a Population-Based Sample of People 70 Years and Older in Norway: The HUNT Study.

Abstract

Background:  Having accurate, up-to-date information on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia is imperative.
Objective:  To determine the prevalence of MCI and dementia in Norway using data from a large population-based study.
Methods:  All people 70 + years of age, n = 19,403, in the fourth wave of the Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT4) were invited to participate in the study HUNT4 70 + . Trained health personnel assessed participants using cognitive tests at a field station, at homes, or at their nursing home. Interviewers also completed a structured carer questionnaire in regard to participants suspected of having dementia. Clinical experts made diagnoses according to DSM-5 criteria. We calculated prevalence weighing the data to ensure population representativeness.
Results:  A total of 9,930 (51.1%) of the possible 19,403 people participated, and 9,663 of these had sufficient information for analysis. Standardized prevalence of dementia and MCI was 14.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-15.4) and 35.3% (95% CI 34.3-36.4), respectively. Dementia was more prevalent in women and MCI more prevalent in men. The most prevalent dementia subtype was Alzheimer’s disease (57%). By adding data collected from a study of persons ≤70 years in the same region, we estimate that there are 101,118 persons with dementia in Norway in 2020, and this is projected to increase to 236,789 and 380,134 in 2050 and 2100, respectively.
Conclusion:  We found a higher prevalence of dementia and MCI than most previous studies. The present prevalence and future projections are vital for preparing for future challenges to the healthcare system and the entire society.

Forfattere

Linda Gjøra, Bjørn Heine Strand, Sverre Bergh, Tom Borza, Anne Brækhus, Knut Engedal, Aud Johannessen, Marte Kvello-Alme, Steinar Krokstad, Gill Livingston, Fiona E Matthews, Christian Myrstad, Håvard Skjellegrind, Pernille Thingstad, Eivind Aakhus, Stina Aam, Geir Selbæk.

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Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 2021.

Factors Associated with Level of Physical Activity After Minor Stroke.

Abstract

Biblioteket skaffer artikkelen.

Objectives: To explore factors from the acute phase, and after three and 12 months, associated with level of self-reported physical activity 12 months after a minor ischemic stroke with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≤ 3 in persons 70 years or younger.
Materials and method: In this longitudinal cohort study patients were recruited consecutively from two stroke units. Activity level were measured with three sets of questions addressing the average number of frequency (times exercising each week), the average intensity, and duration (the average time), and a sum score was constructed. The association between physical activity 12 months after stroke and sociodemographic factors, NIHSS, body mass index, balance, and neuropsychiatric symptoms were explored using multiple linear regression.
Results: This study included 101 patients, with mean age (SD) 55.5 (11.4) years, NIHSS median (Q1, Q3) 0.0 (0.0, 1.0), and 20 % were female. Multiple linear regression analyses showed sick leave status at stroke onset, balance at three and 12 months, and anxiety, depression, apathy, and fatigue at 12 months to be factors associated with physical activity at 12 months after stroke.
Conclusion: We found that pre-stroke sick leave, post-stroke balance, and neuropsychiatric symptoms were associated with the level of physical activity one year after minor stroke. This might be of importance when giving information about physical activity and deciding about post-stroke follow-up.

Forfattere

Charlotta Hamre, Brynjar Fure, Jorunn Lægdheim Helbostad, Torgeir Bruun Wyller, Hege Ihle-Hansen, Georgios Vlachos, Marie Helene Ursin, Gro Gujord Tangen.

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International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2021.

Neuropsychiatric symptoms and comorbidity: Associations with dementia progression rate in a memory clinic cohort

Abstract

Objectives: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are associated with dementia severity and progression rate. NPS clusters have different neurobiological underpinnings; therefore, their effect on dementia progression may differ. Further, little is known about whether individual comorbidities affect progression rate. We investigated the effect of NPS clusters and individual comorbidities on dementia progression.
Methods: A memory clinic cohort with all-cause dementia (N = 442), was followed for up to three years from diagnosis. Previously, we found trajectory groups of dementia progression in this cohort: one with slow progression and two with rapid progression. In the present study, using principal component analysis, three symptom clusters of NPS were on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q): agitation, affective, and psychosis symptom clusters. Data regarding comorbidity were collected by linkage to the Norwegian patient registry. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to explore the association between NPS clusters and comorbidity with trajectory-group membership.
Results: Adjusted for demographics, dementia aetiology, comorbidity, and cognition, we found that, at the time of dementia diagnosis, for every point within the psychosis symptom cluster of the NPI-Q, the risk of rapid progression increased by 53%; for every point within the affective symptom cluster, the risk of rapid progression increased by 29%. A previous diagnosis of mental and behavioural disorders (excluding dementia) decreased the risk of rapid dementia progression by 65%.
Conclusions: Psychosis and affective symptom clusters at the time of diagnosis were associated with rapid progression of dementia. Previous diagnoses of mental and behavioural disorders (excluding dementia) were associated with slow progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Forfattere

Trine Holt Edwin, Bjørn Heine Strand, Karin Persson, Knut Engedal, Geir Selbæk, Anne-Brita Knapskog.

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Frontiers in Neurology, 2021.

The Human Brain Representation of Odor Identification in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Dementia of Mild Degree.

Abstract

Background: Odor identification (OI) ability is a suggested early biomarker of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, we investigated brain activity within the brain’s olfactory network associated with OI in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer’s dementia (mAD) to uncover the neuronal basis of this impairment.
Materials and Methods: Patients with aMCI (n = 11) or mAD (n = 6) and 28 healthy older adults underwent OI functional MRI (fMRI) at 3T, OI, odor discrimination, and cognitive tests and apolipoprotein-e4 (APOE4) genotyping. Eleven patients had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyzed. Those with aMCI were followed for 2 years to examine conversion to dementia.
Results: The aMCI/mAD group performed significantly worse on all OI tests and the odor discrimination test compared to controls. The aMCI/mAD group had reduced activation in the right anterior piriform cortex compared to the controls during OI fMRI [Gaussian random field (GRF) corrected cluster threshold, p < 0.05]. This group difference remained after correcting for age, sex education, and brain parenchymal fraction. This difference in piriform activity was driven primarily by differences in odor discrimination ability and to a lesser extent by OI ability. There was no group by odor discrimination/identification score interaction on brain activity. Across both groups, only odor discrimination score was significantly associated with brain activity located to the right piriform cortex. Brain activity during OI was not associated with Mini Mental Status Examination scores. At the group level, the aMCI/mAD group activated only the anterior insula, while the control group had significant activation within all regions of the olfactory network during OI fMRI. There was no association between brain activity during OI fMRI and total beta-amyloid levels in the CSF in the aMCI/mAD group.
Conclusion: The OI impairment in aMCI/mAD patients is associated with significantly reduced activity in the piriform cortex compared to controls. Activation of downstream regions within the olfactory network is also significantly affected in the aMCI/mAD group, except the anterior insula, which is impinged late in the course of Alzheimer’s disease. OI tests thus reflect Alzheimer’s disease pathology in olfactory brain structures.

Forfattere

Grete Kjelvik, Hallvard R. Evensmoen, Thomas Hummel, Knut Engedal, Geir Selbæk, Ingvild Saltvedt and Asta K. Håberg.

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Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2020.

Cornell’s Depression for Dementia Scale: A psychometric study among Norwegian nursing home residents

Abstract

Background: Depression is common among residents in long term-care facilities. Therefore, access to a valid and reliable measure of depressive symptoms among nursing home (NH) residents is highly warranted. Aim: The aim of this study was to test the psychometrical properties of the Norwegian version of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD). Methods: A sample of 309 NH residents were assessed for depressive symptoms using the CSDD in 2015-2016. Data on CSDD were missing for 64 residents, giving an effective sample of 245 (79.3%). Principal component and confirmatory factor analysis were used. Results: A five-dimensional solution yielded the best fit with the data (χ2=174.927, df=94, χ2/df=1.86, p=0.0001, RMSEA=0.058, p-value for test of close fit=0.152, CFI=0.94, TLI=0.92 and SRMR=0.056). As expected, higher depressive symptoms correlated positively with higher scores on the Minimum Data Set Depression Rating Scale (MDSDRS) and correlated negatively with Quality of life assessed with the Quality of Life in Late Stage-Dementia Scale. Limitations: The excluded residents (n=64, 20.7%) had lower cognitive function, which may limit the generalizability of the study results. Conclusion: This study suggests a five-dimensional solution of the CSDD scale. Sixteen of the 19 original items showed highly significant loadings, explaining a notable amount of the variation in the CSDD-construct. Further development and testing of a well-adapted scale assessing depression in the nursing home population with and without dementia is required.

Forfattere

Geir-Tore Stensvik, Anne-Sofie Helvik, Sigrid Nakrem, Gørill Haugan.

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Nordisk tidsskrift for helseforskning, 2020.

Lydhør identitetsstøtte i samtaler med personer med demens. En studie av intervjuer i en femårig narrativ forløpsstudie.

Abstract

Abstract:
Responsive identity support in conversations with people with dementia: A study of interviews in a five-years narrative longitudinal study A narrative longitudinal study depends on trust and a positive relationship between the  interviewer and the  participant to encourage  the  participant’s continued participation. In reported studies, the methodological part is usually too short to present the complexities in dialogues over time. We therefore have analyzed the interview processes with younger people with dementia, relating the interactions to central  concepts associated with identity.

The aim was to explore the methodological interview approach used in a longitudinal study, focusing on supporting identity and self-esteem. We used the concept of responsive identity to illuminate our findings. In addition, we demonstrate how the interview dialogues can support identity and self-esteem of the participants. The core of this approach is that  the interviewee, living with dementia, should be seen, confirmed and supported to preserve the person`s self and dignity. Dialogue with responsive identity support is a fruitful research method in dementia research. This approach can be generalized to person-centred communication in health and caring relationships.

Forfattere

Kirsten Thorsen og Aud Johannessen

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Human Brain Mapping, 2020.

Multimodal imaging improves brain age prediction and reveals distinct abnormalities in patients with psychiatric and neurological disorders.

Abstract

Abstract: The deviation between chronological age and age predicted using brain MRI is a putative marker of overall brain health. Age prediction based on structural MRI data shows high accuracy in common brain disorders. However, brain aging is complex and heterogenous, both in terms of individual differences and the underlying biological processes. Here, we implemented a multimodal model to estimate brain age using different combinations of cortical area, thickness and sub-cortical volumes, cortical and subcortical T1/T2-weighted ratios, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) based on arterial spin labeling. For each of the 11 models we assessed the age prediction accuracy in healthy controls (HC, n = 750) and compared the obtained brain age gaps (BAGs) between age-matched subsets of HC and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n = 54), mild (MCI, n = 90) and subjective (SCI, n = 56) cognitive impairment, schizophrenia spectrum (SZ, n = 159) and bipolar disorder (BD, n = 135). We found highest age prediction accuracy in HC when integrating all modalities. Furthermore, two-group case-control classifications revealed highest accuracy for AD using global T1-weighted BAG, while MCI, SCI, BD and SZ showed strongest effects in CBF-based BAGs. Combining multiple MRI modalities improves brain age prediction and reveals distinct deviations in patients with psychiatric and neurological disorders. The multimodal BAG was most accurate in predicting age in HC, while group differences between patients and HC were often larger for BAGs based on single modalities. These findings indicate that multidimensional neuroimaging of patients may provide a brain-based mapping of overlapping and distinct pathophysiology in common disorders.

Forfattere

Jaroslav Rokicki, Thomas Wolfers, Wibeke Nordhøy, Natalia Tesli, Daniel S Quintana, Dag Alnaes, Genevieve Richard, Ann-Marie G de Lange, Martina J Lund, Linn Norbom, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid Melle, Terje Naerland, Geir Selbaek, Karin Persson, Jan Egil Nordvik, Emanuel Schwarz, Ole A Andreassen, Tobias Kaufmann, Lars T Westlye.

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Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 2020

Associations between Cognition and Hand Function in Older People Diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia.

Abstract

Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between different cognitive domains and hand function in older people diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia.
Methods: This study is cross-sectional, including 98 communityliving older people aged ≥65 years with MCI or dementia. Assessments of hand function included grip strength, the Finger Tapping Test, and the Grooved Pegboard. Cognitive assessments were the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clock Drawing Test, and Trail Making Tests A and B, as well as a 10-word List Learning Test. Statistical analyses were based on descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable analyses.
Results: Sixty participants were diagnosed with MCI and 38 were diagnosed with dementia. The mean age was 78.8 years (SD 7.4). Analyses of hand function, cognitive tests, and demographic factors showed an association between cognitive tests, in particular executive function (EF), and hand function.
Conclusions: The findings indicated an association between physical and cognitive function. Among the cognitive domains, declines in EF were most related to a reduced physical function.

Forfattere

Karin Hesseberg, Gro Gujord Tangen, Are Hugo Pripp, Astrid Bergland

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