Forskningsartikler - Aldring og helse

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil, 2020

Participation in employment and day care for adults with intellectual disabilities: Equal access for all?

Abstract

Background: The employment rate for people with intellectual disabilities is low. This study aims to increase the knowledge about the association between age, gender, diagnosis, functional level, educational level, and daily activities for adults with intellectual disabilities.
Method: A multinomial logistic analysis was applied to registry data on 12,735 adults
with intellectual disabilities from the Norwegian Information System for the Nursing and Care Sector (IPLOS) and Statistics Norway (SSB).
Results: Higher likelihood of employment and day care participation were associated with younger age but differed between genders and diagnoses. High functional level and lack of a registered functional level decreased the likelihood for employment. Educational level was not associated with employment.
Conclusions: The systematic differences in employment and day care participation among people with intellectual disabilities indicate that actions are needed to prevent inequalities. Improved individual assessment of personal resources and wishes might promote participation in employment and day care.

 

Forfattere

Jeanette Engeland, Bjørn Heine Strand, Siw Tone Innstrand, Ellen Melbye Langballe

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BJPsych Open, 2020

Elderly patients with no previous psychiatric history: suicidality and other factors relating to psychiatric acute admissions

Abstract

BackgroundThe common recommendation that adults with onset of mental illness after the age of 65 should receive specialised psychogeriatric treatment is based on limited evidence.

AimsTo compare factors related to psychiatric acute admission in older adults who have no previous psychiatric history (NPH) with that of those who have a previous psychiatric history (PPH).

MethodCross-sectional cohort study of 918 patients aged ≥65 years consecutively admitted to a general adult psychiatric acute unit from 2005 to 2014.

ResultsPatients in the NPH group (n = 526) were significantly older than those in the PPH group (n = 391) (77.6 v. 70.9 years P < 0.001), more likely to be men, married or widowed and admitted involuntarily. Diagnostic prevalence in the NPH and PPH groups were 49.0% v. 8.4% (P < 0.001) for organic mental disorders, 14.6% v. 30.4% (P < 0.001) for psychotic disorders, 30.2% v. 55.5% (P < 0.001) for affective disorders and 20.7% v. 13.3% (P = 0.003) for somatic disorders. The NPH group scored significantly higher on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) items agitated behaviour; cognitive problems; physical illness or disability and problems with activities of daily living, whereas those in the PPH group scored significantly higher on depressed mood. Although the PPH group were more likely to report suicidal ideation, those in the NPH group were more likely to have made a suicide attempt before the admission.

ConclusionsAmong psychiatric patients >65 years, the subgroup with NPH were characterised by more physical frailty, somatic comorbidity and functional and cognitive impairment as well as higher rates of preadmission suicide attempts. Admitting facilities should be appropriately suited to manage their needs.

Forfattere

Hallvard Lund-Heimark, Eirik Kjelby, Lars Mehlum, Rolf Gjestad , Geir Selbæk, Rune Andreas Kroken, Erik Johnsen, Ketil Joachim Oedegaard, Liv S. Mellesdal

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