S7.5 Psychology of physical activity among middle-aged and older individuals
Chair: Sarianna Sipilä
The symposium focuses on the links between psychological characteristics and physical activity (PA). The objectives and presenters are as follows: Anastasia Shvedko (University of Birmingham, UK) will describe the role of PA interventions in social relationships in older adults; Katja Kokko (University of Jyväskylä, Finland) will show results on the role of personality in PA among middle-aged women; Dmitriy Bondarev (University of Jyväskylä) will present the links of menopause and mental well-being and PA as a moderator; Tiia Kekäläinen (University of Jyväskylä) will analyse psychological predictors and consequences of resistance training among older adults; M. Rizwan Tahir (TNO, Zeist, The Netherlands) will report on the role of psychological characteristics in patients undergoing a surgery.
S7.5.1 Physical Activity Interventions for Treatment of Social Isolation, Loneliness or Low Social Support in Older adults: A systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials
Anastasia Shvedko, Anna C. Whittaker, Carolyn Greig, Janice L. Thompson
University of Birmingham, UK
Background: Loneliness and social isolation are highly prevalent among older adults and have a negative impact on quality of life and well-being. Health promotion interventions have been utilised to attempt to address this. This talk will present a systematic review on the effects of physical activity (PA) interventions versus control conditions for social isolation, loneliness, low social support, social functioning and social networks in older adults aged 60 or older residing in community settings. Method: 38 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included and meta-analysis was possible for 23 RCTs. Results: Risk of bias assessment showed that 12 studies had a high risk of bias. For social functioning only there was a small significant positive effect of PA interventions (SMD=0.30; 95%CI, 0.12 to 0.49; p=.001). No supportive evidence was found for PA interventions for the other social health outcomes. Sub-group analysis of studies measuring social functioning revealed significant positive effects for diseased versus healthy populations, group versus individual settings, and for delivery by a medical healthcare professional. Conclusions: This review confirms the lack of evidence for PA effects on loneliness, social support and social networks, but provides tentative support that social functioning can be influenced by PA interventions.
S7.5.2 Association of Personality Characteristics with Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women
Katja Kokko, Eija Laakkonen, Tuija Tammelin, Vuokko Kovanen, Sarianna Sipilä
University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Background: To study the links of personality characteristics to self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) in middle-aged women. Method: The analyses were based on 47–55 years old women (n=797–1098) who were randomly selected from the Finnish National Registry for the ongoing ERMA study. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Eysenck Personality Inventory for neuroticism and extraversion and the Short-Form of the PANAS for positive and negative affectivity. PA was self-reported by Grimby scale and measured by hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. Preliminary associations of personality characteristics with PA were examined using Pearson correlations. Results: Neuroticism (r=-.104, p=.001), extraversion (r=.099, p=.001), and positive affectivity (.203, p<.001) were significantly associated with self-reported PA, whereas only neuroticism (-.097, p=.006) and positive affectivity (r=.096, p=.007) correlated with accelerometer-measured PA. Negative affectivity had no significant links to PA. Conclusions: Personality characteristics are associated with PA in middle-aged women. Neuroticism contributes negatively and positive affectivity positively to PA, independently of the measure of PA. In addition, extraversion relates to self-reported PA.
S7.5.3 Menopausal Status and Mental Well-Being: Physical Activity as a Moderator?
Dmitriy Bondarev, Sarianna Sipilä, Taija Finni, Urho M. Kujala, Pauliina Aukee, Eija Laakkonen, Vuokko Kovanen, Katja Kokko
University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Background: To examine the relationship between menopausal status and mental well-being and whether physical activity (PA) modifies this relationship. Methods: Women, aged 47–55 years, drawn from the ERMA, were categorised as being pre- (n=304), peri- (n=407) or postmenopausal (n=387) based on a hormonal analysis and bleeding diary. Mental well-being was assessed using the CES-D for depression, the Short-Form of the PANAS, and Diener’s Satisfaction with Life Scale. PA was self-reported and categorized as low, moderate or high. Linear regression modelling adjusted for marital status, parity and employment was used. Results: Rates of depressive symptoms were lowest in pre- compared to peri-(B=0.06, p=.024) and postmenopausal (B=0.07, p=.016) women. Post- and perimenopausal women with high PA had lower depression scores (B=-0.21, p<.001; -0.17 p<.001, respectively), higher life satisfaction (B=0.40, p=.012; B=0.54, p=.002), and higher positive affectivity (B=0.37, p<.001; B=0.52, p=p<.001) than physically inactive post- and perimenopausal women. Premenopausal women with high PA reported higher life satisfaction (B=0.79, p<.001) and higher positive affectivity (B=0.36, p=.001) in comparison with physically inactive premenopausal women. Conclusions: Menopause predisposes to depressive symptoms but does not relate to life satisfaction or affectivity. PA modifies the relationship between menopausal status and well-being, particularly among the post- and perimenopausal women.
S7.5.4 Resistance Training and Psychological Functioning in Older Adults
Tiia Kekäläinen, Katja Kokko, Sarianna Sipilä, Tuija Tammelin, Simon Walker
University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Background: To investigate the effects of a nine-month resistance training intervention on psychological functioning and whether psychological functioning predicts the maintenance of resistance training after the intervention. Methods: Men and women aged 65–75 (N=106) were randomised to one (RT1), two (RT2) and three (RT3) times-a-week training groups and a non-training control group. All training groups attended supervised resistance training twice-a-week for three months followed by their allocated training frequency for six months. Psychological functioning was assessed with well-being and exercise-related motivational characteristics at baseline, month-3 and month-9. Interviews one year after the intervention determined possible continuance of self-directed resistance training. Results: The intervention affected (GEE models groupxtime p<.05) environmental quality of life, sense of coherence, action and coping planning and exercise motivation. RT2 and RT3 improved more than RT1. Increases in motivational characteristics during the intervention predicted the maintenance of training.Conclusions: Associations between resistance training and psychological functioning were bidirectional: intervention affected psychological functioning and improvements in motivational characteristics predicted continuing resistance training after the intervention.
S7.5.5 A systematic Review on Prehabilitation in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery: Are We Doing and Reporting the Right Things?
M. Rizwan Tahir, Gwen Thomas, Bart C. Bongers, Victor L. Kallen, Nico L. U. van Meeteren
TNO, Zeist, The Netherlands
Background: The impact of surgery on postoperative physical functioning depends on the invasiveness of the procedure and the patient’s resilience, the ability to adapt and effectively respond to stressors. Resilience is associated with preoperative physiological reserve capacity. Although studies demonstrate positive effects of prehabilitation on preoperative physiological reserve capacity, conflicting results are reported concerning its postoperative effects. We aim to review the literature on therapeutic validity and postoperative outcomes of the effects of prehabilitation in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Methods: Controlled trials assessing the effects of prehabilitation on postoperative outcomes in major abdominal surgery will be included. Methodological quality and therapeutic validity will be evaluated. Results: Methodological quality, therapeutic validity, and postoperative outcome indicators of the included studies will be thoroughly assessed and presented. Conclusions: We hypothesize that studies with high methodological and therapeutic validity demonstrate positive effects of prehabilitation on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Furthermore, we hypothesize merely postoperative events are currently being reported, whereas it might be more appropriate to evaluate the effects of prehabilitation on postoperative outcomes by assessing the impact of postoperative events as well.