S6.1 Health, health behaviors and psychological factors before and after retirement
Chair: Sari Stenholm
Discussant: Dorly Deeg
The large postwar baby-boomer generations are currently retiring from labor market. The transition to retirement is considered an important turning point which is accompanied by changes in many aspects of life. Retirement can have a major influence in particular on people's health behaviors, health and quality of life. This symposium will focus on factors predicting retirement timing, psychological factors that contribute to work participation after retirement and health behavioural changes during retirement transition. The first paper examines whether retirement timing differs between persons who were and were not diagnosed with diabetes during their work career. The second paper focuses on the role of work motivation in work participation after retirement. The third paper characterizes how sleep disturbances changes during the transition to retirement. The fourth paper presents changes in sedentary behavior during the transition to retirement based on self-reported and objective activity measurements. Taken together, these studies will provide new findings related to retirement timing and the retirement transition and will increase understanding about this life transition as a potential moment to support active and healthy ageing.
S6.1.1 Work-loss years among people diagnosed with diabetes - a reappraisal from a life course perspective
Mikaela B. von Bonsdorff1,2, Monika E. von Bonsdorff1,2, Maija Haanpää3, Minna Salonen2,4, Tuija M. Mikkola2, Hannu Kautiainen2,4, Johan G. Eriksson2,4
1University of Jyväskylä, Finland, 2Folkhälsan Research Center, 3Helsinki University Central Hospital, 4University of Helsinki, Finland
Background: We examined whether retirement differed between persons who were and were not diagnosed with diabetes during their work career. Methods: 12 726 individuals of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born between 1934-1944, had data available from nationwide registers with follow-up from early adulthood until they transitioned into retirement or died. Results: During a follow-up of 382 328 person-years for men and 349 894 for women, 36.8% transitioned into old age pension and 63.2% retired early. Among men, 40.5% of those with and 32.8% of those without diabetes transitioned into old age pension (p=0.003). The corresponding numbers for women were 48.6% and 40.4% (p=0.013), respectively. Mean retirement age among men was 60.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.6 to 60.7) years for those with and 57.6 (95% CI, 57.2 to 58.0) years for those without diabetes (p=0.016). Among women, corresponding ages were 61.4 (95% CI, 60.8 to 61.9) and 59.5 (95% CI, 59.3 to 59.7) years (p<0.001), respectively. The difference in mean restricted work-loss years according to diabetes was 2.5 (95% CI 0.5 to 4.6) for men and 1.9 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.8) for women. Conclusion: Among individuals followed up throughout their work career, those with a diabetes diagnosis retired approximately two years later compared to those without diabetes.
S6.1.2 The role of work motivation for retirement behavior and adjustment
Georg Henning1, Andreas Stenling1,2, Susanne Tavfelin2, Boo Johansson1, Magnus Lindwall1
1Gothenburg University, Sweden, 2Umeå universitet, Sweden
Background: We tested if different dimensions of work motivation (intrinsic, identified, introjected, extrinsic, and amotivation), based on self-determination theory, predict if people continue to work after retirement. We also investigated if work motivation moderates the effect of this continued work participation on basic psychological need satisfaction. Method: We studied older adults (n=587) who retired between the first two waves of the “Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden” study. Work participation at wave 2 was predicted in a logistic regression, and change in need satisfaction was modeled with latent change score models. Results: Higher intrinsic work motivation predicted continued work participation in retirement. Intrinsic work motivation also weakened the negative effect of continued work participation in retirement on changes in relatedness and autonomy. Surprisingly, high scores on amotivation also weakened this association. Conclusion: Intrinsic work motivation seems to influence work participation in later life, and intrinsically motivated workers also benefit more from post-retirement work. This research shows that quality, not only quantity, of work motivation matters for retirement behavior and adjustment.
S6.1.3 Reduction in sleep disturbance at retirement: Evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health
Vera van de Straat2, Loretta G. Platts1, Jussi Vahtera3, Hugo Westerlund1, Piet Bracke2 1Stockholm University, Sweden, 2 Ghent University, 3University of Turku, Finland
Background: Little is known about the effects of old age retirement on changes in sleep disturbance. While retirement may reduce sleep disturbance, the impact of retirement upon sleep may differ between groups. Methods: This study modelled reported sleep disturbance over five waves before to five waves after retirement in a sample of 2110 participants from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Sleep disturbance over the retirement transition was modelled using repeated-measures regression analysis with generalized estimating equations in relation to gender, age at retirement, working patterns (night work, full-time/part-time work) and control over work hours. The analyses controlled for marital status, education level and income obtained from registers, as well as psychological and physical job demands. Results: Retiring from paid work was associated with decreased sleep disturbance. The shape of the trajectory differed between men and women, by age at retirement and between people with and without control over work hours. Conclusions: These analyses using repeated measurements provide evidence for reductions in sleep disturbance following old age retirement, results which pose a challenge in ageing populations where governments are seeking to extend working lives.
S6.1.4 Changes in self-reported and objectively measured sedentary behavior across retirement transition: the Finnish retirement and aging study (FIREA)
Tuija Leskinen1, Anna Pulakka1, Kristin Suorsa1, Olli J. Heinonen1, Jaana Pentti1,2, Mika Kivimäki2,3, Jussi Vahtera1, Sari Stenholm1
1University of Turku, Finland, 2University of Helsinki, Finland, 3University College London, UK
Background: This study examines changes in sedentary behavior across retirement transition based on self-reported and objective activity measurements. Methods: The study population consisted of 1,354 participants from the Finnish Retirement and Aging Study. Repeated postal survey including questions on sedentary behavior domains as well as objective activity measurements with wrist-worn ActiGraph were conducted once a year across retirement transition, covering on average three study waves. Results: Total sedentary time increased by 67 (95% CI 58-75) minutes/day during retirement transition and continued to increase after retirement transition. Of the domain-specific sedentary behaviors, television viewing time increased by 25 (95% CI 21-29) computer use at home by 19 (95% CI 16-22) and other sitting time by 36 (95% CI 31-41) minutes/day while time sitting in a vehicle decrease by 6 (95% CI 3-10) minutes/day during retirement transition. Results related to objectively measured sedentary time will be presented at the conference. Conclusions: Total leisure-related sedentary time and television viewing time increased across retirement transition. As both total sedentary behavior and television viewing are associated with adverse health outcomes and mortality among older adults, more attention should be paid to reducing time spend on sedentary behaviors among recently retired adults.