O7.1 Physical functioning
Chair: Guro Hanevold Bjørkløf
O7.1.1 Developing an Assessment Method of Active Aging: University of Jyväskylä
Active Aging Scale (UJACAS)
Taina Rantanen, Erja
Portegijs, Katja Kokko, Merja Rantakokko, Timo Törmäkangas, Milla Saajanaho
Gerontology Research Center, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Background: We defined active ageing as “the striving for elements of wellbeing through activities relating to a person’s goals, functional abilities and opportunities.” The goal was to develop a quantifiable assessment method for active ageing for research on individuals.
Methods: A multiphase process that included drafting by an expert panel, a pilot study for item analysis and scale validity, a feedback study with focus groups and questionnaire respondents, and a test-retest study. Altogether 235 people aged 60-94 years provided responses.
Results: University of Jyvaskyla Active Aging Scale (UJACAS) includes the following 17 items: practicing memory, using computer, advancing matters in own life, exercising, enjoying the outdoors, taking care of appearance, crafting or DIY, making home cozy and pleasant, helping others, maintaining friendships, getting to know new people, balancing personal economics, making one’s days interesting, practicing artistic hobbies, participating in events, advancing societal/communal matters, and doing things according to one’s world view. All items are assessed for the aspects of goals, ability, opportunity and activity which form sub-scores (range 0-68) and the total score (range 0-272). The complete scale alpha reliability was 0.95, the person separation reliability 0.94, and the item separation reliability 0.98. The test-retest was good (ICC=0.915). Rasch modelling showed that the UJACAS assesses a unidimensional latent construct of active aging.
Conclusion: The UJACAS provides a quantifiable measure of active ageing for research and practice.
O7.1.2 Do more recent born generations of older adults have stronger grip than
Bjørn Heine Strand1, Nina Emaus2, Lone Jørgensen2, Henrik Schirmer3, Rachel Cooper4, Astrid Bergland5
1 Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway, 2 UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway. 3 Univerisity Hospital of North Norway, 4 University College London, UK, 5 OsloMet – Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway
Background: Evidence on whether more recent born generations of people now reaching old age have better physical capability than previous generations is scarce and inconclusive. We aimed to investigate cohort differences in grip strength.
Methods: Birth cohorts (1910-1929, 1923-1942, 1931-1949); all assessed for grip strength using a Martin Vigorimeter at the same ages (66-84 years) in one of the Tromsø study waves 4 (1994/5), 6 (2007/8) or 7 (2015/16) was included and counted 5,595 participants.
Results: Mean grip strength increased significantly across the birth cohorts, with largest increase in the most recent cohort. Male grip strength (age-standardized) was 0.69 bar (95% CI 0.68, 0.70) in the 1910-29 cohort; 0.71 (0.69, 0.72) bar in the 1923-42 cohort and 0.75 (0.74, 0.77) bar in the 1931-49 cohort. Corresponding numbers for women were 0.62 (0.62, 0.63), 0.63 (0.63, 0.64) and 0.66 (0.65, 0.67). Differences in body size, educational attainment, and smoking explained greater than half of the observed difference in grip strength between the 1931-1949 cohort and the 1910-1929 cohort, but the difference was still significant (p<0.01). Mean grip strength at 80 years in the last study wave corresponded to mean grip strength at 75 years in the first study wave.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest improved grip strength in more recent birth cohorts of older adults in Norway, which can be partly attributed to higher education, reduced smoking and increased body size. This apparent improvement in physical capability among older adults, might have impact on future forecasting of health and social care costs.
O7.1.3 Physical performance in elderly who exercise regularly – associations with age
Gro Gujord Tangen1, Hilde Stendal Robinson2
1 Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Oslo University Hospital, Norway,
2 University of Oslo, Norway
Higher age is associated with reduced physical capability, however there are also many older persons who exercise regularly and have a well-preserved functional level. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between age, gender and physical function, and to examine feasibility of performance-based tests for physical function among elderly who exercise regularly.
We included 105 persons above 70 years who had exercised regularly for > 6 months. The physical tests were: Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Timed up and Go (TUG) and gait speed for mobility, One-leg standing (OLS) and Mini-BESTest for balance, Stair-test for endurance, and 30 sec sit-to-stand (30sSTST) and grip strength for muscle strength.
Median (IQR) age was 74 (5) years, and 48 (45.7 %) were women. Age was moderately correlated with each of the tests (rs=-0.27—0.44, p <0.05), except from SPPB (rs =-0.16, p=0.10) and grip strength (rs =-0.09, p=0.35). After controlling for age, men performed significantly better than women on 30sSTS, Mini-BESTest, Stair-test and grip strength, while there were no differences on the SPPB, gait speed, OLS tests and TUG. SPPB and OLS with eyes open had ceiling effect (55 % and 47 % respectively), while OLS eyes closed had floor effect (26 % <2 seconds).
Age was correlated to physical function, and men performed better than women on all tests except for general mobility. We recommend gait speed, TUG, 30sSTS, grip strength and Mini-BESTest for assessment of physical function in this group of exercising elderly.
O7.1.4 Physical function of oldest old men is associated with exercise,diet quality and
Satu K Jyväkorpi, Annele Urtamo, Kaisu H Pitkälä, Timo E Strandberg
University of Helsinki, Finland
Background: Maintaining good physical functioning in the old age is of utmost importance for survival. We examined physical functioning (Phyfu) and associative factors such as diet quality, daily physical activity and other health indicators in surviving oldest-old men.
Design: Cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal study
Methods: The participants were surviving oldest old home-dwelling men (mean age 88 years, range 82-97 years) from the Helsinki Businessmen Study (HBS) cohort (n=394) who responded to a postal health and nutrition survey in 2016. Physical functioning part of RAND-36 questionnaire was used to define Phyfu. Diet quality was measured using two diet quality instruments. Food and dietary intakes using 3-day food records were obtained from a sub-group of the respondents. The participants were divided into quartiles corresponding to their (Phyfu) scores and health and nutrition indicators were classified according to the Phyfu quartiles. Furthermore, linear regression model determining associative factors of Phyfu was performed.
Research results: Phyfu quartiles were positively associated with age, daily walking habit, self-perceived physical condition, cognition, diet quality, blood glucose levels, resilience, happiness, psychological well-being, alcohol use and negatively associated with weight loss, body weight (BW) and falls. In a linear regression model Phyfu was associated (p < .001, adjusted R2 = .575) with daily walking habit, resilience, energy part of RAND-36 and Mediterranean diet adherence score.
Conclusion: Exercise, diet quality and other health related indicators were associated with Phyfu in the oldest-old men. Interestingly both BW and weight loss were negatively associated with Phyfu.
O7.1.5 Effect of a dual-task exercise program on kinematic gait changes in the elderly
António Coutinho1, João Pinto2, Vítor Pinheira1, Abel Rodrigues1, Nuno Cordeiro1, Catarina Leitão1
1 Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, Portugal, 2 Sporting Clube de Braga, Portugal
Background: Changes in gait are common with aging: lower speeds; stride length; pace and a greater time in the double-support phase. It is unclear if changes are due to physical limitations or adaptive strategies to improve safety, related with the ability to perform dual task and with implication in health status.
Methods: Execution of double task, motor and cognitive, focused on 4 components: coordination, muscle strengthening, dual-task and balance. 4 weeks program, with a total of 12 sessions. Evaluation: T0 (pre-intervention), T1 (post-intervention) and T2 (follow-up 1 month after). SF-12, MMSE, 6 Meter Experimental Protocol and kinematic evaluation. A sociodemographic characterization was used.
Research results: MMSE in T0=25,87±2,26, T1=26,47±1,88 and T2=24,963±1.94. Mental component of SF-12: T0=46,04±8.90, T1=46,48±9,59 and T2=42,97±6,19 and the physical component: T0=35,20±5.70, T1=39,26±7,84 and T2=32,98. In the 6 meters protocol, T0-T1 for task 6 (T0=6,33±5,59 and T1=3.00±3,35, p=0,015) and for the total protocol (T0=70,93±28,17 and T1=55± 23,06, p=0,022). In gait kinematic evaluation: at the hip angle at the moment of heel shock, between T0-T1 (p=0043) and the hip angle at the time of MFC between T0-T1 (p=0,005) and T1-T2 (p=0,031).
Conclusions: The dual-task program improved the physical capacity, the cognitive state and the double-task performance, but these declined after the end of the program. May be a relationship between the knee angle at the time of MFC and the value of MFC.
O7.1.6 Physical function factors associated with life-space mobility in later life
Sofi Fristedt, Marie Ernsth-Bravell, Ann-Sofi Kammerlind, Eleonor Fransson
Jönköping University, Sweden
Life-Space mobility, i.e., mobility with respect to reaching different areas defined as life-spaces extending from the room where the person sleeps, to mobility outside one’s hometown, is vital to support performance of daily life activities and participation in social life. In later life, there is a risk of limitations in life-space mobility, due to for example declining physical function. It is essential to gain more knowledge about older people’s mobility, and factors related to mobility limitations. The purpose was to identify and describe physical factors associated with life-space mobility. The LSA was included in a population-based study of health, functioning and mobility among older persons in Sweden. The study population was randomly selected from a population register. Men and women (n=312), 75, 80, 85, or 90 years-old, living in Jönköping County Council, Sweden, in 2009 and 2010, were eligible. Life-Space Assessment (LSA), was the outcome of interest, analysed against age, sex, SPPB total score, dizziness, PEF, grip strength, self-rated vision and self-rated hearing. Univariate and finally bivariate regression models were used for analysis. In the univariate models only age, sex, SPPB, PEF and grip strength were found statistically significant (***p<0.001) and included in final models. In the final, bivariate models, the significant associations remained for sex (***p<0.001), SBBP (***p<0.001) and grip strength (p=0.017). Decrease in life-space mobility was associated with being a woman, but also physical functioning in terms of lower SPPB and grip strength.